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with的用法

With是个介词,基本的意思是“用”,但它也可以协助构成一个极为多采多姿的句型,在句子中起两种作用;副词与形容词。
with在下列结构中起副词作用:

1.“with+宾语+现在分词或短语”,如:
(1) This article deals with common social ills, with particular attention being paid to vandalism.

2.“with+宾语+过去分词或短语”,如:
(2) With different techniques used, different results can be obtained.
(3) The TV mechanic entered the factory with tools carried in both hands.

3.“with+宾语+形容词或短语”,如:
(4) With so much water vapour present in the room, some iron-made utensils have become rusty easily.
(5) Every night, Helen sleeps with all the windows open.

4.“with+宾语+介词短语”,如:
(6) With the school badge on his shirt, he looks all the more serious.
(7) With the security guard near the gate no bad character could do any thing illegal.

5.“with+宾语+副词虚词”,如:
(8) You cannot leave the machine there with electric power on.
(9) How can you lock the door with your guests in?

上面五种“with”结构的副词功能,相当普遍,尤其是在科技英语中。

接着谈“with”结构的形容词功能,有下列五种:

一、“with+宾语+现在分词或短语”,如:
(10) The body with a constant force acting on it. moves at constant pace.
(11) Can you see the huge box with a long handle attaching to it ?

二、“with+宾语+过去分词或短语”
(12) Throw away the container with its cover sealed.
(13) Atoms with the outer layer filled with electrons do not form compounds.

三、“with+宾语+形容词或短语”,如:
(14) Put the documents in the filing container with all the drawers open.

四、“with+宾语+介词短语”,如:
(15) The young lady with a red ribbon on her head is my former maths teacher.
(16) Do you know the gentleman with both hands in his pockets?

五、“with+宾语+副词虚词,”如:
(17) Is there any water in the kettle with this cover off ?
(18) Out went the boy scouts with their uniforms on.

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